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Short Essays On Information Technology

Information technology (IT) is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, photos, multimedia presentations, and other forms, including those not yet conceived).[1]

Now, people have been using it with many other words from computing and other electronical words. It now covers many more fields of study than it has covered in the past.

History[2][change | change source]

Four basic periods Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication problems of the time:

  1. Premechanical,
  2. Mechanical,
  3. Electromechanical, and
  4. Electronic

A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. – 1450 A.D.[change | change source]

  1. Writing and Alphabets—communication.
    1. First humans communicated only through speaking and picture drawings.
    2. 3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (what is today southern Iraq) devised cuneiform
    3. Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols
    4. The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.
  2. Paper and Pens—input technologies.
    1. Sumerians' input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay.
    2. About 2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on the papyrus plant
    3. around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based.
  3. Books and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices.
    1. Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books"
    2. The Egyptians kept scrolls
    3. Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.
  4. The First Numbering Systems.
    1. Egyptian system:
      • The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom.
    2. The first place value numbering systems similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. in India who created a nine-digit numbering system.
    3. Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.

For more details, see Numeral system

  1. The First Calculators: The Abacus. 


One of the very first information processors.

B. The Mechanical Age: 1450 – 1840[change | change source]

  1. The First Information Explosion.
    1. Johann Gutenberg (Mainz, Germany)
      • Invented the movable metal-type printing process in 1450.
    2. The development of book indexes and the widespread use of page numbers.
  2. The first general purpose "computers"
    • Actually people who held the job title "computer: one who works with numbers."
  3. Slide Rules, the Pascaline and Leibniz's Machine.

Early 1600s, William Oughtred, an English clergyman, invented the slide rule.

C. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 – 1940.[change | change source]

The discovery of ways to harness electricity was the key advance made during this period. Knowledge and information could now be converted into electrical impulses.

  1. The Beginnings of Telecommunication.
    1. Voltaic Battery.
    2. Telegraph.
    3. Morse Code.
      • Developed in 1835 by Samuel Morse
      • Dots and dashes.
    4. Telephone and Radio.
      • Alexander Graham Bell.
      • 1876
    5. Followed by the discovery that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated.
    6. These two events led to the invention of the radio
      • Guglielmo Marconi
      • 1894

2. Electromechanical Computing

  1. Herman Hollerith and IBM.
    Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) in 1880.
  2. Mark 1
  • Howard Aiken, a Ph.D. student at Harvard University
  • Completed January 1942
  • 8 feet tall, 51 feet long, 2 feet thick, weighed 5 tons, used about 750,000 parts

D. The Electronic Age: 1940 – Present.[change | change source]

  1. First Tries.
    • Early 1940s
    • Electronic vacuum tubes.
  2. Eckert and Mauchly.
    1. ENIAC, fixed, not stored, program

3. The First Stored-Program Computer(s)

  • Early 1940s, Mauchly and Eckert began to design the EDVAC - the Electronic Discreet Variable Computer.
    • John von Neumann's influential report in June 1945:
      • "The Report on the EDVAC"
    • British scientists used this report and outpaced the Americans.
      • Max Newman headed up the effort at Manchester University
        • Where the Manchester Mark I went into operation in June 1948--becoming the first stored-program computer.
      • Maurice Wilkes, a British scientist at Cambridge University, completed the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) in 1949—two years before EDVAC was finished.
        • Thus, EDSAC became the first stored-program computer in general use (i.e., not a prototype).
  1. The First General-Purpose Computer for Commercial Use: Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC).
  • Late 1940s, Eckert and Mauchly began the development of a computer called UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
  • Remington Rand.
  • First UNIVAC delivered to Census Bureau in 1951.
  • But, a machine called LEO (Lyons Electronic Office) went into action a few months before UNIVAC and became the world's first commercial computer.

3. The Four Generations of Digital Computing.

The First Generation (1951–1958).

  1. Vacuum tubes as their main logic elements.
  2. Punch cards to input and externally store data.
  3. Rotating magnetic drums for internal storage of data and programs

The Second Generation (1959–1963).

  1. Vacuum tubes replaced by transistors as main logic element.
    • AT&T's Bell Laboratories, in the 1940s
    • Crystalline mineral materials called semiconductors could be used in the design of a device called a transistor
  2. Magnetic tape and disks began to replace punched cards as external storage devices.
  3. Magnetic cores (very small donut-shaped magnets that could be polarized in one of two directions to represent data) strung on wire within the computer became the primary internal storage technology.
    • High-level programming languages

The Third Generation (1964–1979).

Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits.

  • Magnetic tape and disks completely replace punch cards as external storage devices.
  • Magnetic core internal memories began to give way to a new form, metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) memory, which, like integrated circuits, used silicon-backed chips.
  • Operating systems
  • Advanced programming languages like BASIC developed.
  1. The Fourth Generation (1979–Present).
    1. Large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs and VLSICs)
    2. Microprocessors that contained memory, logic, and control circuits (an entire CPU = Central Processing Unit) on a single chip.
      • Which allowed for home-use personal computers or PCs, like the Apple (II and Mac) and IBM PC.
        • Apple II released to public in 1977, by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.
          • Initially sold for $1,195 (without a monitor); had 16k RAM.
        • First Apple Mac released in 1984.
        • IBM PC introduced in 1981.
          • Debuts with MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
      • Fourth generation language software products
        • e.g., VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, dBase, Microsoft Word, and many others.
        • Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for PCs arrive in early 1980s
          • MS Windows debuts in 1983.
            • Windows wouldn't take off until version 3 was released in 1990
          • Apple's GUI (on the first Mac) debuts in 1984.

Field of Study[change | change source]

  • Bachelor of Information Technology (abbreviations BITBInfTechB.Tech(IT) or BE(IT)) is an undergraduate academic degree that generally requires three to five years of study. While the degree has a major focus on computers and technology, it differs from a Computer Science degree in that students are also expected to study management and information science, and there are reduced requirements for mathematics. A degree in computer science can be expected to concentrate on the scientific aspects of computing, while a degree in information technology can be expected to concentrate on the business and communication applications of computing. There is more emphasis on these two areas in the electronic commerce, e-business and business information technology undergraduate courses. Specific names for the degrees vary across countries, and even universities within countries.

This is in contrast to a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology which is a bachelor's degree typically conferred after a period of three to four years of an undergraduate course of study in Information Technology (IT). The degree itself is a Bachelor of Science with institutions conferring degrees in the fields of information technology and related fields.

Many employers require software developers or programmers to have a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science degree; however, those seeking to hire for positions such as network administrators or database managers would require a Bachelors of Science in Information Technology or an equivalent degree.[3] Graduates with an information technology background are able to perform technology tasks relating to the processing, storing, and communication of information between computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices. Information technology as a field emphasizes the secure management of large amounts of diverse information and its accessibility via a wide variety of systems both local and world-wide.[4]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

The First Calculator: The Abacus

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Information Technology is a developing technology that aims at obtaining the maximum information with minimum of resources, labour or time.  According to the dictionary, Information Technology is “the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers, for storing, analysing and distribution of information of all kinds, including words, numbers and pictures.”

Ever since the appearance of Man on the earth, information has been the major cause of his progress and development.  But information alone is not enough.  Information has to be processed, put to use by logic and reason before it becomes useful knowledge.

Information Technology includes and encompasses within itself the whole technological, social and cultural phenomena that promise an excellent future for mankind.  The 21st century is a century of Information Technology.   Just as steam engine emerged to be the technology of the 19th century and computer technology enhanced the capacity of human brain in the 20th century, Information Technology is the in-thing in the 21 century.

The technological progress during the past sixty years has brought about an explosion in knowledge.  Today we have super computers imitating the human brain and even beating it in various fields like fast data processing, huge memory storage and quick retrieval capacity.  These super computers can do as much as Terra (10) floating point operations per second (FLOPS) and have a 128 bit word length.  The personal computer is today a part of many urban homes in the country.  The computer is changing its capacity so fast that while in the 70s the IC chips were operated with 18MHz clock, today the clock rate is 850MHz.  In the near future, we would have computers with a clock speed of 4000 MHz.  Similarly, the first microprocessor chip (intel 4004) produced in early seventies had 2500 transistors. We hope to have not in very far distant future, 350 million of these transistors sitting on a tiny little chip.  The semiconductor fabrication technology has made a possible for the latest memory devices to have a capacity of one Gigabyte (10 bytes) each, which is equivalent to the information stored in 8000 newspaper pages.  A single CD can store in itself the entire works of Shakespeare.  The most interesting part of the story of staggering progress is that while the number crunching capacity of the computer is going up in geometrical progression, the price or cost involved is falling down in an almost similar proportion.

This wonder machine called computer has revolutionised life in a big way. With its excellent memory, it has become a source of Internet Information Service.  A fathomless ocean of information is available today on these computers on any subject, any phenomenon, anytime and anywhere in the world.  You have only to switch on your computer, press a few buttons and a whole sea of information is available to you on your screen to select and download without spending a single penny on it.  Just press a few buttons, you may be a student, a research worker in any field, an industrialist or an inquisitive information gatherer, the floodgates of information are opened on you in no time.

Think of the days when transfer of information was confined to oral transmission or written message only.  Today, any amount of information can be conveyed from any corner of the world to any other farthest corner, in a matter of seconds only.   We have satellite communication, optical fibre communication, terrestrial microwave communication, coaxial cable communication and several other advances systems that enable us to transport enormous amounts of data at the huge rate of several gigabytes per second to the farthest points in the world.  The data communication capability is increasing every day with the help of various advancing technologies like the video data compression, digital video and audio, HDTV etc.

The global information Infrastructure has established thousands and thousands of servers and multitudes of personal computers in more than 150 countries.  All these computers have been networked in the Internet System.  The Internet, you will be surprised to learn, has taken five years to reach the first 50 million users.  This number is increasing every day.  The day is not far when every human individual will have  an access to the brain of every other human individual in the world and the two would be able to exchange information on any and every topic under the sun.

The Information Technology today is rightly called the Technology of the Century as it has found its application and use in every walk society of the world.  Distances no longer exist and the world appears to have shrunk into a Global Village.  The wisdom of the wisest is today available to the stupidest of the person thus ushering in an era of real equality of opportunity to all.  It is really a landmark achievement that more than six billion population of the world will soon be living in a virtual village, as  compact as any small Indian village of a fun thousand population.

Information Technology, as expected, has brought about a sea change in the functioning of this world.  It has proved to be a great boon to industrial productivity.  Internet makes all the information available regarding product design, product quality, latest technologies,  market survey, financial conditions and the like at any given point of time on a continuous basis at any place in the world.  Systems like Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprises Resources Planning (ERP) and coming up fast to provide mutual help and information to producers, buyers, distributors, and consumers all over the world.  Documents transfer has now become a very fast and quick affair.  The results are eye-opening.  The global market for IT enabled services, starting from 200 billion US dollars in 1998 is growing at the rate of 23 per cent per annum.  It is expected to touch the 100 trillion US$ mark by the year 2008.  In India alone, the software export industry is expected to touch the 100 billion US dollars mark in the next eight years.  Commercial activity through internet not only serves businessmen, consumers, financial institutions and their mutual activities, but also provides advertising facilities on the World Wide Web (WWW) servers and Home Pages.  Product specifications, company profiles, catalogues, pricing information etc.  are all available on these pages 24 hours a day and seven days per week all over the world.  Orders can be placed through E-mail and payments can be made through telebanking facilities and E- currency.

There is a similar revolution in the field of education.  No student, anywhere in the world, will now be deprived of the best information available on any subject in any part of the world.  The best course material, the best teachers and the best teaching aids and tools will be available to one and all.  Education, in fact, is the biggest beneficiary of the Information Technology.  Several projects like Wired Class-rooms of the USA, National Grid of the U.K., Operation Knowledge of India, are already under way, to bring internet to the actual class-rooms of every village in every country.

In the field of the social and cultural development also, the Information Technology is fast showing its wonderful impact.  Home shopping, Telebanking, Video conferencing, E-mail, Videophones etc. are bringing the peoples of the world closer together and ushering in an era of mutual goodwill, understanding and harmonious relationships.  Similarly, E-governance is bringing in well-informed, quick decisions and transparency in administration.  No missing files, no red tape, no delay, better records, quick service and no dishonesty or fooling —- this will soon become the order of the day.

In short, every aspect of the human life under the sun will see a vast change.  We used to talk of a utopia, a heaven of our dreams.  I am sure it is coming.  We are soon going to witness an age where every head will be high, where every heart will be happy, where every hand will be busy.

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July 18, 2015evirtualguru_ajaygour10th Class, English (Sr. Secondary), Languages3 CommentsEnglish 10, English 12, English Essay Class 10 & 12

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